The fact that children’s playgrounds can meet the expectations of the people of the city qualitatively and quantitatively requires that they meet some contemporary design criteria. These;
It is reported that 60% of the accidents occurred in the playgrounds (CPSC-Consumer Product Safety Comission-1990). 40% is caused by impacts of sharp corners, protruding metal parts and connection points by impacting a moving element or another child.
Four main factors play a role in the formation of such accidents;
Game elements are higher than they should be or game areas are not designed for age groups
If the ground below the game elements is not suitable, there may be obstacles on the ground that can be stuck and fall
Hazards caused by sharp edges, hard corners, unsuitable screws and bolts that cause the game elements to be broken, neglected and injured.
Lack of maintenance, supervision and supervision in the playgrounds.
Children’s play areas which are left out of care and uncontrolled will create openness to vandalism by creating a feeling of abandonment and fear. Regular maintenance and control of the play areas at regular intervals will ensure that the space is used correctly and that it offers safe spaces.
Children’s play areas should be easily accessible for all children and offer different play opportunities.
Children’s playgrounds should include rehabilitation-assisting activities for children with physical disabilities. There should be opportunities for the use of children with disabilities and their interaction with other children. Playgrounds should be built using materials suitable for wheelchair use (wood fiber, plastic based flooring, etc.). Large platforms and walkways help wheelchair use. The use of different textures and colors will be appropriate for the use of visually impaired children. Balance should be established between active and passive games in the field of play. Presenting a variety of games is an effective method for determining the interests and expectations of children.
Games; physical, structural, social, imitation games. Physical games are more likely to run, jump, jump, etc. based on action. Includes activities. Structural games aim to create new objects or games by using creativity of objects in children’s circles. It enables children to develop their creativity and experience their environment. Playing with sand, playing with blocks, free drawing on the walls are activities. Social games are games for physical and spiritual communication. Team games can be included. Ball games played in teams, chase etc. learn the concepts of mutual shopping, cooperation and sharing. Imitation games are games that enable children to form abstract thoughts and try different roles. They play a variety of roles with different professional groups. They develop their imagination by creating new stories. Home, piracy, thief-police games.
Simple and simple elements to develop imagination can be supported by natural elements such as water, soil and plants, so that children can also learn nature.
Many injuries in children’s playgrounds are caused by children playing with non-age game tools. Small age groups play vehicles in the older age group due to scale problem.
2-6 and 6-12 age grouping should be done in the children’s play areas and should be indicated with information boards. It should be less dangerous for children aged 2 to 6 and should have smaller size play tools and control of parents.
The playgrounds should include play elements that will stimulate children’s imagination. Complex platforms, stairs, rope swinging, or when used in a house, airplane, ship, such as elements that can create.
Slides, swings and climbing platforms of different sizes and sizes may be included in the play areas for mixed age group.
For the 6-12 age group, hiding places, hiding places (such as houses) can be created. Plantation can be done for this purpose. At the same time, the ability to find directions through plant mazes is improved. Games associated with water, small ponds, ponds, sandboxes and easily shaped materials (sand-water) can create, create simple objects and mobilize their imagination. In the play areas, especially for children aged 6-12 years, sit, talk, make pictures and so on. table chairs and similar sizes and scales to be used for purposes. design and resting places can be designed.
Safety, care and control of children’s playgrounds are important places for children’s social development and communication. It allows children to learn the facts of movement, sharing, cooperation and participation. Learn the basic rules of acting as individuals in social life by communicating with each other. It can also observe the environment by tending to remain hidden. The creation of such spaces in playground designs becomes important in this respect.
Sufficient and comfortable seating areas in the design of children’s playground, structuring, climatic protection, planting, environment-sensitive structuring (slope, topography, flora etc.), taking into account the climatic changes, the continuity and flexibility issues that will allow for one year of use as a design criterion of comfort are important components in providing.
Material selection should be made carefully by considering safety, comfort and maintenance in children’s play areas.
Materials such as soil, sand, rubber can be used as a depressurizing material in the grounds of playgrounds. For the use of children with physical disabilities, materials such as wood fiber, plastic based flooring are used on the ground. The materials of different colors and textures on the floor will be suitable for the use of children with disabilities.
The materials to be used in the play elements must be resistant to all climate and atmospheric conditions, the structural integrity of the materials should be selected in such a way that they will not deteriorate until the next maintenance and the materials should be in a way that will not harm the environment with time and accumulation.
In this context, the materials used in the children’s play elements are generally plastic, recyclable high density polyethylene (HDPE), wood, rubber, galvanized steel, laminate (HPL).
The usage of the material in the game tools design, taking into account the environmental, economic and safety criteria, will bring the most rational solution in the children’s play areas.
Periodic maintenance of children’s playgrounds minimizes security-threatening risks and ensures continuity of playground use. Children’s play areas which are left out of maintenance and uncontrolled are open spaces to vandalism because they leave feeling of abandonment and fear. Maintenance is an important design criterion for preventing vandalism against space, play elements and reinforcement units.
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